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The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Dassault described the Rafale as being an omnirole fighter with semi-stealth capabilities. The Rafale is a multirole combat aircraft; capable of simultaneously undertaking air supremacy, interdiction, reconnaissance, and airborne nuclear deterrent missions. The Rafale is distinct from other European fighters of its era in that it is almost entirely built by one country, involving most of France's major defense contractors, such as Dassault, Thales and Safran.

In the late 1970s, the French Air Force and Navy were seeking to replace and consolidate their current fleets of aircraft. In order to reduce development costs and boost prospective sales, France entered into an arrangement with four other European nations to produce an agile multi-purpose fighter, but subsequent disagreements over workshare and differing requirements led to France's pursuit of its own development program. Dassault built a technology demonstrator which first flew in July 1986 as part of an eight-year flight-test programme, paving the way for the go-ahead of the project.

The Rafale's design and production processes exploited the unprecedented advancements in software technology; these have enabled the integration of formerly individual components and combined with intelligent automated analysis processes, known collectively as data fusion. Many of the aircraft's avionics and features, such as direct voice input (DVI), the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar and the Optronique secteur frontal (OSF) infra-red search and track sensor, were indigenously developed and produced for the Rafale programme. Originally scheduled to enter service in 1996, post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities contributed to significant delays to the programme.

Introduced in 2001, the Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy. It has also been marketed for export to several countries, including selection by the Indian Air Force. The Rafale has been used in combat over Afghanistan, Libya, and Mali; features such as the SPECTRA integrated defensive-aids system have been crucial advantages in these theatres. Several upgrades to the radar, engines, and avionics of the Rafale are planned to be introduced in the near-future.

In the mid-1970s, both the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) and Navy (Marine nationale) had requirements for a new generation of fighters to replace those in or about to enter service.Because their requirements were similar, and to reduce cost, both departments issued a common request for proposal. In 1975, the French Ministry of Aviation initiated studies for a new aircraft to complement the upcoming and smaller Mirage 2000, with each aircraft optimised for differing roles.

In 1979, Dassault joined the MBB/BAe "European Collaborative Fighter" (ECA) project which was renamed the "European Combat Aircraft". The French company contributed the aerodynamic layout of prospective twin-engine, single-seat fighter; however, the project collapsed in 1981 due to differing operational requirements of each partner country. In 1983, the "Future European Fighter Aircraft" (FEFA) programme was initiated, bringing together Italy, Spain, West Germany, France and the United Kingdom to jointly develop a new fighter, although the latter three had their own aircraft developments. A number of factors led to the eventual split between France and the four countries. Around 1984 France reiterated its requirement for a carrier-capable version and demanded a leading role; moreover, France demanded a swing-role fighter that was lighter than a design desired by the other four nations. West Germany, UK and Italy opted out and established a new EFA programme. In Turin on 2 August 1985, West Germany, UK and Italy agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter; and confirmed that France, along with Spain, had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project. Despite pressure from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985. The four-nation project would eventually result in the Eurofighter Typhoon.


Technical Specifications



Two Snecma M88-2 turbofans Dry thrust: 50.04 kN (11,250 lbf) each

Thrust with afterburner: 75.62 kN (17,000 lbf) each



Length: 15.27 m (50.1 ft) Wingspan: 10.80 m (35.4 ft) Height: 5.34 m (17.5 ft) Wing area: 45.7 m² (492 ft²)



C: 9,500 kilograms (21,000 lb) B: 9,770 kilograms (21,500 lb) M: 10,196 kilograms (22,480 lb) Loaded weight: 14,016 kg (30,900 lb) Max. takeoff weight: 24,500 kg (C/D), 22,200 kg (M) (54,000 lb)



High altitude: Mach 1.8+ (2,130+ km/h, 1,050+ knots) Low altitude: Mach 1.1+ (1,390 km/h, 750 knots) Service ceiling: 16,800 m (55,000 ft)



Guns: 1× 30 mm (1.18 in) GIAT 30/719B autocannon with 125 rounds Hardpoints: 14 for Air Force versions (Rafale B/C), 13 for Navy version (Rafale M) with a capacity of 9,500 kg (21,000 lb) external fuel and ordnance and provisions to carry combinations of: Missiles: MBDA MICA IR or EM or Magic II and MBDA Meteor air-to-air mssiles in the future

Air-to-ground: MBDA Apache or Storm Shadow-SCALP EG or AASM-Hammer or GBU-12 Paveway II Air-to-surface: AM 39-Exocet Deterrence: ASMP-A nuclear missile. Other: Thales Damocles targeting pod RECO NG (New Generation) reconnaissance pod. Also up to 5 drop tanks,t he Rafale can also carry a buddy-buddy refuelling pod.



Role: Multi-Role Air Dominance Fighter
Dassault Aviation (later Dassault-Brequet Aviation)

Variants: A, B, C, D M, N, R

Operators: France, French Navy